Physiological modeling of isoprene dynamics in exhaled breath
Julian King, Helin Koc, Karl Unterkofler, Pawel Mochalski, Alexander Kupferthaler, Gerald Teschl, Susanne Teschl, Hartmann Hinterhuber, and Anton Amann
Real-time measurements of exhaled breath under an ergometer challenge reveal characteristic changes of isoprene output in response to variations in ventilation and perfusion. Here, a valid compartmental description of these profiles is developed. By comparison with experimental data it is inferred that the major part of breath isoprene variability during exercise conditions can be attributed to an increased fractional perfusion of potential storage and production sites, leading to higher levels of mixed venous blood concentrations at the onset of physical activity. In this context, various lines of supportive evidence for an extrahepatic tissue source of isoprene are presented.
Our model is a first step towards new guidelines for the breath gas analysis of isoprene and is expected to aid further investigations regarding the exhalation, storage, transport and biotransformation processes associated with this important compound.