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Upcoming talks

Tournus Magali (École Centrale de Marseille) Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, Hörsaal 2, ground floor. Thu, 23. Nov 17, 14:15
Scalar conservation laws with heterogeneous flux in the BV framework
We consider a scalar conservation law with a flux containing spatial heterogeneities of bounded variation, where the number of discontinuities may be infinite. We address the question of existence of an adapted entropy solution in the BV framework. A sufficient key condition guaranteeing existence is identified and new BV estimates are given. This provides the most general BV theory available. Moreover, we show with a counter-example that if this hypothesis is violated, the problem may be ill-posed in the BV framework.
  • Thematic program: Models in Biology and Medicine (MOBAM-16) (2016/2017)

Talks of the past month

Bob Eisenberg (U. Rush Chicago) WPI, OMP 1, Seminar Room 08.135 Fri, 11. Nov 16, 11:00
"Ions in Solutions and Channels: the plasma of life"
All of biology occurs in ionic solutions that are plasmas in both the physical and biological meanings of the word. The composition of these ionic mixtures has profound effects on almost all biological functions, whether on the length scale of organs like the heart or brain, of the length scale of proteins, like enzymes and ion channels. Ion channels are proteins with a hole down their middle that conduct ions (spherical charges like Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , and Clƒ{ with diameter ~ 0.2 nm) through a narrow tunnel of fixed charge (¡¥doping¡¦) with diameter ~ 0.6 nm. Ionic channels control the movement of electric charge and current across biological membranes and so play a role in biology as significant as the role of transistors in computers: almost every process in biology is controlled by channels, one way or the other. Ionic channels are manipulated with the powerful techniques of molecular biology in hundreds of laboratories. Atoms (and thus charges) can be substituted a few at a time and the location of every atom can be determined in favorable cases. Ionic channels are one of the few living systems of great importance whose natural biological function can be well described by a tractable set of equations. Ions can be studied as complex fluids in the tradition of physical science although classical treatments as simple fluids have proven inadequate and must be abandoned in my view. Ion channels can be studied by Poisson-Drift diffusion equations familiar in plasma and semiconductor physics ¡X called Poisson Nernst Planck or PNP in biology. Ions have finite size and so the Fermi distribution must be introduced to describe their filling of volume. The PNP-Fermi equations form an adequate model of current voltage relations in many types of channels under many conditions if extended to include correlations, and can even describe ¡¥chemical¡¦ phenomena like selectivity with some success. My collaborators and I have shown how the relevant equations can be derived (almost) from stochastic differential equations, and how they can be solved in inverse, variational, and direct problems using models that describe a wide range of biological situations with only a handful of parameters that do not change even when concentrations change by a factor of 107. Variational methods hold particular promise as a way to solve problems outstanding for more than a century because they describe interactions of ¡¥everything with everything¡¦ else that characterize ions crowded into channels. An opportunity exists to apply the well established methods of computational physics to a central problem of computational biology. The plasmas of biology can be analyzed like the plasmas of physics.
  • Thematic program: Models in Biology and Medicine (MOBAM-16) (2016/2017)

Piotr Gwiazda (U. Warsaw) Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, Hörsaal 2, ground floor. Wed, 9. Nov 16, 14:15
"Mathematical scandal - Euler equations"
In the recent years a significant attention has been directed again to Euler system, which was derived more than 250 years ago by Euler. The system describes the motion of an inviscid fluid. The main attention has been directed to incompressible fluids. Nevertheless, also the system of compressible fluids is an emerging topic, however still very far from a complete understanding. The classical results of Scheffer and Schnirelman pointed out the problem of non-uniqueness of distributional solutions to incompressible Euler system. However the crucial step appeared to be an application of methods arising from differential geometry, namely the celebrated theorem by Nash and Kuiper. This brought Camillo De Lellis and Laszlo Szekelyhidi Jr. in 2010 to the proof of existence of bounded nontrivial compactly supported in space and time solutions of the Euler equations (obviously not conserving physical energy!), basing on the Baire category method, which was highly non-standard kind of proof used in the theory of PDEs. Without a doubt this result is a first step towards the conjecture of Lars Onsager, who in his 1949 paper about the theory of turbulence asserted the existence of such solutions for any Hoelder exponent up to 1/3. As a result very much related to the Onsager conjecture one can find the result of P. Constantin, W. E and E. Titi for incompressible flow proving the energy conservation for any Hoelder exponent above 1/3. Our talk is based on several resent results joint with Eduard Feireisl and Emil Wiedemann and concerns various notions of solutions to compressible Euler equations and some systems of a similar structure.
  • Thematic program: Models in Biology and Medicine (MOBAM-16) (2016/2017)
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